The phrase “gross national happiness” (GNH) whas first used in 1979 by the 4th King of Bhutan, Jigme Singye Wangchuck. He declared that it is more important than Gross Domestic Product. Legal code of Bhutan (1729) states that “If the government cannot create happiness for its people, then there is no purpose for government to exist”.
Nowadays it is not only idea. Bhutan developed Gross National Happiness Survey studied nine different domains that contribute to a person’s happiness:
- Living standards – material comforts measured by income, financial security, housing, asset ownership;
- Health – both physical and mental health;
- Education – types of knowledge, values and skills;
- Good governance – how people perceive government functions;
- Ecological diversity and resilience – peoples’ perception on environment;
- Time use – how much time is spent on work, non-work, sleep; work-life balance;
- Psychological wellbeing – quality of life, life satisfaction and spirituality;
- Cultural diversity and resilience – strength of cultural traditions and festivals;
- Community vitality – relationships and interaction within A Compass Towards a Just and Harmonious Society community, social cohesion and volunteerism.